Newborn REM sleep or seizure

Seizures in newborns (babies in the first month of life) are different from seizures that occur in older children and adults. The seizures often are fragmentary because the infant's brain is still developing and is unable to make the coordinated responses seen in a typical generalized tonic-clonic seizure It's estimated that newborns spend about 40%-70% of their sleep in REM. That translates to, on average, 8-11 hours per day in REM. As we age, REM sleep lessens. Children spend about 25%-30% of their sleep in REM, and adults spend 15%-20% of their sleep in this stage symptoms of a seizure in newborn, how it is different from rem sleep? 1 doctor answer • 1 doctor weighed in. Share. Dr. Djamchid Lotfi answered. If in doubt discuss with your pediatrician new born has very prolonged periods of rem , seizures are short lived events, as a rule? 4.4k views Answered >2 years ago. Than REM sleep occurs after your body has cycled through the four NREM stages and is the deepest stage of sleep. It's characterized by rapid eye movements, dreams, and almost complete paralysis of.

Seizures in Newborns Epilepsy Foundatio

  1. Newborn Seizures or REM Sleep. m. mOcho. Hi ladies. I just want to know if anyone has experienced this. I've noticed my 6day old's eyes roll back in her sleep. They whites of her eyes show and she blinks for a few seconds rapidly. I expressed my concern at her newborn appointment yesterday. They ran some tests and are waiting for the results
  2. Normal at all ages, not just in newborns; Suspect a seizure if: jerking occurs when awake or lasts more than 10 seconds; Normal Breathing Sounds and Noises: Throat Noises. Caused by air passing through normal saliva or refluxed milk. These gurgling noises are likely to build up during sleep. Slowly, the newborn learns to swallow more often
  3. Jitteriness refers to tremors in newborns. It is the representation of an exaggerated startle response. Tremulousness is often confused for seizures (also known as convulsion and fits), which naturally unnerves the parents. It is the most common involuntary movement seen in infants, which disappears completely as they mature
  4. seizures in newborns signs and symptoms. A 48-year-old member asked: symptoms of a seizure in newborn, how it is different from rem sleep? Dr. Djamchid Lotfi answered. If in doubt discuss with your pediatrician new born has very prolonged periods of rem , seizures are short lived events, Read More. Send thanks to the doctor

Newborns actually spend most of their time sleeping in the REM (rapid eye movement) stage of sleep. Think of REM sleep as an active stage of sleep. And the common traits of REM sleep may cause your baby's legs and arms to jerk or twitch. Sudden jerks of the arms and legs only occur during sleep Myoclonus is a condition that may cause concern when it occurs in children as it may seem like a seizure or infantile spasms. The important difference is that sleep myoclonus only occurs in sleep. Sleep myoclonus is common during the first week of a newborn's life and usually resolves within a year The condition can be alarming and may occur focally during nonrapid eye movement (non-REM) sleep. Video EEG monitoring shows no electrographic seizures. Read Mor The myoclonus condition resembles an infant seizure during sleep. This condition often occurs in the first few weeks until the infant is 2 months old. In infants aged > 6 months, it is rarely experienced. The myoclonus condition when a baby sleeps occurs due to involuntary muscle movements

Understanding REM Sleep in Babies Pathways

  1. Neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS) refers to a constellation of signs occurring in newborn infants who were exposed to opioids or opiates in utero.These manifestations include poor feeding, gastrointestinal disorders, abnormal sleep patterns, and neurological signs such as jitteriness, tremors, and seizures (1, 2)
  2. What made the pediatrician so sure this baby was fine was that her seizure-like movements only occurred during sleep and stopped instantly when she was awakened. My colleague Michael Zimbric, M.D.
  3. g and may occur focally during nonrapid eye movement (non-REM) sleep. Video EEG monitoring shows no electrographic seizures
  4. Since the formal characterization of sleep stages, there have been reports that seizures may preferentially occur in certain phases of sleep. Through ascending cholinergic connections from the brainstem, rapid eye movement (REM) sleep is physiologically characterized by low voltage fast activity on the electroencephalogram, REMs, and muscle atonia

The second sleep disorder that may mimic convulsive epileptic seizures is REM behavior disorder (RBD) (58,59). RBD is characterized by recurrent episodes of vigorous motor activity occurring during REM sleep, movements that often awaken the patient or spouse. The primary presenting complaints are interrupted sleep or injuries during sleep Epileptic activity is also shaped by sleep stages and their transitions. Most activity is linked to NREM stage sleep (stages 1, 2, and 3) while seizures can be partially prevented during REM sleep. In addition, the sleep architecture of someone with epilepsy will be influenced by their disorder and can include Although clusters may last for up to an hour, 15 they typically do not arouse or wake the infant, and cease with awakening. 17,18 The jerks occur during all stages of sleep, most in NREM sleep. Neurologic examination is normal, and there is no association with developmental delay or seizures For seizures occurring while awake, the eyes are usually open. If seizure onset is during sleep, the eyes often open at the onset of the seizure. Second, benign sleep myoclonus of infancy usually occurs in otherwise healthy newborns, whereas neonatal seizures often occur in the context of infection, encephalopathy, or metabolic disorders Aydan has at least 8 types of DIAGNOSED epilepsy.THIS IS REM SLEEP TWITCHING IN AN EPILEPTIC CHILD AND NOT ACTUALLY SEIZURES. If you are at all concerned yo..

symptoms of a seizure in newborn, how it is different from

Seizures and epilepsy are more common in infants and children than any other age group. However, children who have epilepsy often stop having seizures by the time they reach adulthood. Parents of.. Seizures frequently occur in newborns (14 per 1000), often causing death or permanent neurological sequelae. The prognosis largely depends on etiologic factors and the duration of convulsive activity An epileptic seizure is caused by unusual electrical activity in the brain. This usually causes to muscles of the body to tighten or weaken temporarily. Nocturnal seizures happen when a person is sleeping. They are most common right after falling asleep, just before waking up, and soon after waking up. Any seizure can occur during sleep Neonatal seizures occur in 1.5% of newborns and are even more common in preterm babies. 7 In newborns, a seizure doesn't necessarily look like extreme shaking or thrashing. It might be a repeated jerking movement of the arms or legs, or it might look like a repetitive motion of mouth and tongue or the head

Night seizures may be triggered by a sudden surge of fever (or fever seizures). It's pretty clear when this is the case because a child usually is flushed red and hot to the touch. But when there's no obvious reason for a night seizure, the cause may be benign rolandic epilepsy (also called benign focal epilepsy of childhood)

Normal at all ages, not just in newborns; Suspect a seizure if: jerking occurs when awake or lasts more than 10 seconds; Normal Breathing Sounds and Noises: Throat Noises. Caused by air passing through normal saliva or refluxed milk. These gurgling noises are likely to build up during sleep. Slowly, the newborn learns to swallow more often A seizure is caused by sudden, abnormal and excessive electrical activity in the brain. By definition, neonatal seizures occur during the neonatal period — for a full-term infant, the first 28 days of life. Most occur in the first one to two days to the first week of a baby's life Newborn babies spend roughly 50% of their time asleep in REM. Since newborns sleep up to 18 hours each 24-hour period, that means they experience up to nine hours of REM each day. As a baby's sleep schedule changes, so do their sleep cycles. Baby REM sleep is one part of the sleep cycle that changes over time. However, there is no simple. Older children and adults sleep fewer hours and spend much less time in REM sleep. Non-REM sleep. Non-REM has 4 stages: Stage 1: drowsiness, eyes droop, may open and close, dozing. Stage 2: light sleep, the baby moves and may startle or jump with sounds. Stage 3: deep sleep, the baby is quiet and does not mov In the first months of life, up to half a baby's sleep time can be REM sleep, but this proportion decreases to about a third by 1-2 years of age. The example below is from a 4 month old healthy baby; note the high amplitude vertex wave, rather prolonged spindle in the first half of the page, and the asynchronous and poorly formed spindle near.

If it is simply that you see movement under the eyelids it is completely normal and called REM sleep (Rapid Eye Movement sleep). A newborn baby spends more than 80% of total sleep time in REM, while adults only spend around 20-25% of their time asleep in REM The patient is a 1-week-old boy born at 37+2 weeks' gestational age through spontaneous vaginal delivery. The pregnancy was complicated by maternal gestational diabetes mellitus and pre-eclampsia. The Apgar score was 9 at both 1 minute and 5 minutes after birth. Because of hypoglycemia at delivery that required IV dextrose, he was admitted to the local neonatal intensive care unit

Baby Twitching in Sleep: Is This Normal

  1. The brain is very active during light REM sleep, which is accompanied by dreams, movement, and noises. As the baby dreams, she might grunt, cry, laugh, and even make sleep-talking sounds. After each REM cycle, the baby might wake up, move and grunt before slipping back to sleep. When To Worry About Newborns Grunting During Sleep
  2. ate sleep, more arousals, and more sleep-stage changes than the control infants. Airway obstructions during sleep occurred in 41 infants with a history of breath holding, compared with 6 in the control group
  3. Sleep myoclonus (or hypnic myoclonus) occurs during sleep and sleep transitions, often as one is dropping off to sleep. Some forms appear to be stimulus sensitive. While some people may not be troubled by, or need treatment, others may require treatment where myoclonus may be a symptom in more complex and disturbing sleep disorders
  4. g tends to occur. During the REM state, a baby may be moving in conjunction with their dreams or simply due to the activity happening in their brain. All this movement can be noisy. Also, your baby may make sounds, from a gurgle to a whimper, in conjunction with their dreams
  5. Seizures During Sleep. Seizures that occur exclusively during sleep are nocturnal seizures, caused by a fever or epilepsy. Epilepsy is an unusual change in the brain's electrical activity, which happens when changing from one sleep stage to another.Nocturnal seizures are tonic-clonic, and they closely resemble sleep terrors because patients show the same symptoms

Newborn Seizures or REM Sleep - February 2011 Babies

People with epilepsy may have an irregular sleep pattern, as seizures at any time of the night can disrupt sleep and seizures during the day can affect the next night's sleep. For some people the effects of having a seizure can upset their sleep pattern for several days afterwards Seizures . Depending on the type of seizure, there may be a large movement of the body. Generalized tonic-clonic seizures may be associated with tongue or mouth biting, loss of bladder control with incontinence, and even injuries Sleep Deprivation and Seizure Studies. Looking at scientific studies, Nature Reviews Neurology published in January 2007 a study which found that after sleep deprivation there is an increased cortical excitability which can induce seizures.. However, in another issue published by Neurology Volume 59 they compared rates of seizures between two groups of patients who already have partial. Quantification of various sleep states from the newborn period to adulthood show that FT infants spend more time in rapid eye movement (REM) sleep than any other age group. Furthermore, as a PT baby approaches FT, the amount of nonrapid eye movement (NREM) sleep increases, while REM sleep decreases Different Stages of a Baby's Sleep. Stage - 1: Non-REM Sleep. This is what we can also call as light or shallow sleep. As this is stage-1, so it is the first step between being awake and sleep. During this stage, our bodies become more relaxed and breathing becomes regular. However, even the slightest of sound or movement can make us awake

Newborns should get 14-17 hours of sleep over a 24-hour period, says the National Sleep Foundation. Some newborns may sleep up to 18-19 hours a day. Newborns wake every couple of hours to eat. Breastfed babies feed often, about every 2-3 hours. Bottle-fed babies tend to feed less often, about every 3-4 hours. Newborns who sleep for. While the ultimate mechanisms underlying the anti-epileptic effect of REM sleep are still being explored, several recent studies have championed the de-synchronization hypothesis. 1-3 Epilepsy is defined as the tendency to recurrent unprovoked seizures; in other words, seizures due to intrinsic abnormal neuronal hyperexcitability or. Partial epilepsy has effects on both sleep continuity [the number of awakenings is increased, total sleep time (TST) is decreased and sleep onset latency is increased] and sleep architecture [slow wave sleep (SWS) and rapid eye movement (REM) sleep are both reduced] (Binnie 1993)

Most of these seizures will happen during light sleep or soon after the child falls asleep, before waking or around arousal during the night. Research suggests that sleep may trigger seizures. During sleep, the body is still very active and changes within the mind and body occur. These changes are thought to influence the seizure activity NREM sleep has been proven to activate focal epileptiform abnormalities in sufferers with focal epilepsy, with extra spikes seen throughout deeper phases of sluggish wave sleep in comparison with later stages of sleep. four Non-REM sleep can also be related to high propagation of spikes with REM sleep extra related to a restriction of these. Nocturnal Seizure is a type of seizure disorder where a person experiences seizures while sleeping. If the patient experiences more than 90% of seizures when asleep, then the patient is said to have sleep seizures or nocturnal seizures. Know the causes, signs, symptoms, treatment, pathophysiology, diagnosis and safety measures of nocturnal seizures or seizures while sleeping Myoclonic seizures. A group of muscles, usually in the baby's neck, shoulders, or upper arms, starts to jerk. These seizures usually occur in clusters, several times a day and several days in a row Twitching during REM sleep, the phase of sleep where rapid eye movement occurs, could indicate REM behavior disorder, or RBD. Normal REM sleep is when the body is limp with sleep paralysis while the brain is busy processing information. This phase of sleep is also where the strongest dreams occur

Newborn Reflexes and Behavior - Seattle Children's Hospita

Rhythmic movement disorder (RMD) is a neurological disorder characterized by repetitive movements of large muscle groups immediately before and during sleep often involving the head and neck.It was independently described first in 1905 by Zappert as jactatio capitis nocturna and by Cruchet as rhythmie du sommeil. The majority of RMD episodes occur during NREM sleep, although REM movements have. Yes, a seizure can be caused by lack of sleep. Some people may suffer a single seizure in their whole life after an all-nighter or after a prolonged period of poor sleep combined with major stress. A seizure disorder can take place when there is a miscommunication in the brain's nerve cells which causes unconsciousness and makes the. Prevalence of seizures in multiple sclerosis patients was 2.28 percent and sleep disorders was 1.6 percent for narcolepsy, 14.5 - 57.5 percent for restless leg syndrome, 2.22 - 3.2 percent for.

This type of dog seizure happens quite suddenly and most often occurs when your dog is sleepy or already sleeping and in the non-REM stages of sleep. During a tonic seizure, your dog will begin. Generally, newborns sleep a total of about 8 to 9 hours in the daytime and a total of about 8 hours at night. But because they have a small stomach, they must wake every few hours to eat. Most babies don't start sleeping through the night (6 to 8 hours) until at least 3 months of age When they sleep, they can recall past experiences and instincts may come alive. Some believe cats have a limited degree of an imagination, too. However, these dreams only really occur when the animal experiences REM sleep. The amount of REM sleep an animal experiences is often correlated to the safety of his environment Other problems include REM sleep behavior disorder, nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy, chronic migraines associated with nausea/vertigo, episodes of passing out, hypoglycemia, liver dysfunction (had accidental overdose of acetaminophen in 2009) had liver and kidney failure, hernia, degenerative disc disease with compression of nerve root, PTSD. it normal fro case to twitch while sleeping just like REM in human or moving while your sleep but sometimes twitches can happen with the cat being dreaming it can be a sign of a seizure, but it's infrequent but if you are a bit suspicious you cat take your cat for a check-up if this little twitches precise while the cat is sleeping and your.

What is Sleep Myoclonus?. Myoclonus is a brief twitching of the muscles that can occur separately or in groups, as well as in a sequence or at random. A common form of myoclonus while awake is hiccups, which are quick contractions affecting the diaphragm. Sleep myoclonus, is a form of myoclonus which occurs during sleep, usually in the stage just before deep sleep [Infantile epilepsy and sleep]. [Article in Spanish] Prats Viñas JM(1). Author information: (1)Unidad de Neuropediatria, Hospital de Cruces, Barakaldo (Vizcaya). PMID: 8556633 [Indexed for MEDLINE] Publication Types: Review; MeSH terms. Electroencephalography; Epilepsy*/diagnosis; Humans; Infant; Infant, Newborn* Sleep, REM If you noticed drool, vomit, bedwetting, or unusual drowsiness and fatigue in the morning, watch your baby closely. To identify nocturnal seizures, use a baby monitor or a nocturnal seizure monitor to watch your baby while sleeping. If you notice your baby's body twitch rhythmically, or shaking more violently, go to your child's side immediately Neurological examination is abnormal at onset with encephalopathic infant Segmental erratic myoclonic seizures are earliest seizures typically seen but focal clonic seizures and repetitive tonic spasms can develop later on EEG: burst suppression pattern mainly in sleep but can be present in all stage

Newborn Jitteriness, Twitching and Seizure

seizures in newborns signs and symptoms Answers from

Fig. 4.1 Neonatal montage. Special montage—preterm or newborn with head circumference <35 cm Usually, 16 channels recording are done, which should include 2 or more non-cerebral channels. Non-cerebral electrodes include EKG, EMG, ocular, and respiratory belt. It helps in staging the sleep cycle, abnormal body movements, and also to identify the artifacts REM sleep is a period of muscle paralysis in adults, but not so in babies. When an adult doesn't have paralysis during sleep, they have a sleep disorder and have been known to sleepwalk, or even fight in their sleep. But during baby REM sleep, sucking motions, smiles, frowns, and irregular breathing aren't a disorder, they are typical Your baby may have your eyes or your lips, but when it comes to sleep, the two of you are quite dissimilar. The newborn sleep cycle looks much different than adult's. First, it takes your baby longer to drift into a deep. Second, both cycle between periods of deep sleep & shorter stints of light REM sleep. Uninterrupted REM sleep has many benefits

Why Does My Baby Jump In His/Her Sleep? - SleepBaby

Seizures in children may pass or be part of an epileptic disorder. WebMD identifies types of seizures, their diagnosis, and the risks they pose to your child That's because around half of their sleep time is spent in REM (rapid eye movement) mode — that light, active sleep during which babies move, dream and maybe wake with a whimper. Don't worry. As he matures, his sleeping patterns will too, with fewer REM cycles and more periods of deeper, quieter sleep. 4. Newborns are noisy sleepers Sleep is composed of two main states known as REM, Rapid Eye Movement, and non-REM sleep. A normal sleep cycle progresses though phases of deep and less deep non-REM sleep to REM sleep (also called active sleep) and back again. In adults this cycle takes around 90 minutes; in newborns it is shorter, around 60 minutes

Generally, newborns sleep a total of about 8 to 9 hours in the daytime and a total of about 8 hours at night. But because they have a small stomach, they must wake every few hours to eat. Most babies don't start sleeping through the night (6 to 8 hours) until at least 3 months of age. But this can vary a lot Complete pauses in breathing are called apneas. In infancy the frequency of these events increases during the stage of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. The apneas in infant sleep apnea may be central, obstructive or mixed. Central apneas occur when your body decreases or stops its effort to breathe

What Is Sleep Myoclonus, Twitching Jerks, or Movements

Newborn sleep patterns take their toll on parents. In a study tracking the sleep patterns of mothers from pregnancy through the postpartum period, maternal sleep worsened after childbirth and continued to deteriorate until about 12 weeks postpartum (Kang et al 2002)—-the time when newborn sleep patterns begin to show marked circadian rhythms (Nishihara et al 2000) Subtle seizures are the most common seizure types in new-born babies. Clonic seizures - the baby may have jerking or stiffening of an arm or leg that can switch from side to side. Myoclonic seizures - the baby's whole upper body may suddenly jerk forward. Or both their legs may jerk up towards their stomach, with their knees bent Stage 2: REM sleep (also referred to as active sleep), in which the baby may twitch or jerk her arms or legs, and her eyes move under her closed eyelids.Breathing is often irregular and may stop for 5 to 10 seconds—a condition called normal periodic breathing of infancy—then start again with a burst of rapid breathing at the rate of 50 to 60 breaths a minute for 10 to 15 seconds, followed. Reported is the association of REM behavior disorder (RBD) with late-onset, sleep-related, tonic-clonic seizures in two elderly men. In each patient, RBD preceded the onset of seizures by several years. The authors hypothesize that REM sleep disruption may facilitate seizure occurrence

Definition of circadian rhythm sleep disorder, nocturia

Make sure your child gets enough sleep, as lack of sleep can trigger a seizure. Make sure your child visits his or her healthcare provider regularly. Have your child tested as often as needed. Keep in mind that your child may not need medicine for life. Talk with the healthcare provider if your child has had no seizures for 1 to 2 years The abnormality abates in REM sleep and only rare bursts of diffuse spike-and-wave or focal (predominantly frontal) discharges occur. There may be focal predominance of fast rhythms. Example of continuous spike-and-wave during sleep 1 DSM-5 1.1 Diagnostic Criteria 1.2 Differential Diagnosis 1.2.1 Nightmare disorder 1.2.2 Breathing-related sleep disorders 1.2.3 REM sleep behavior disorder 1.2.4 Parasomnia overlap syndrome 1.2.5 Sleep-related seizures 1.2.6 Alcohol-induced blackouts 1.2.7 Dissociative amnesia, with dissociative fugue 1.2.8 Malingering or other voluntary behavior occurring during wakefulness 1.2.9 Panic. Neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS) refers to a constellation of signs occurring in newborn infants who were exposed to opioids or opiates in utero. These manifestations include poor feeding, gastrointestinal disorders, abnormal sleep patterns, and neurological signs such as jitteriness, tremors, and seizures (1, 2). Myoclonus, jitteriness, and tremors often may be interpreted as seizures and.

More information: Mark P. Fitzgerald et al, Expanding Access to Continuous EEG Monitoring in Neonatal Intensive Care Units, Journal of Clinical Neurophysiology (2020).DOI: 10.1097/WNP.000000000000073 The older antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) have a variety of effects on sleep, including marked reduction in REM, slow-wave sleep (SWS) and sleep latency, and increased percentage of light sleep

How is benign sleep myoclonus differentiated from neonatal

Babies don't have muscle paralysis during REM sleep the way that adults do. So they can move a lot, and grunt, smile or kick, and still be in a deep sleep state. But another very common phenomenon called benign sleep myoclonus, can look quite a lot like a seizure because it appears to be a rhythmic twitching of both arms or both legs Term. In the healthy term neonate, quiet sleep is clinically characterized by eye closure, absent REM, and scant body movements, except for occasional sucking activity or generalized myoclonic startles. The quiet sleep E EG background near term, tracé alternant, evolves from the less mature tracé discontinu in the preterm (Figures 1, 2b) Epilepsy specialists are aware that REM sleep has been implicated in the pathophysiology of sudden unexpected death in epilepsy, even though seizures exclusively in REM sleep are rare, they..

Ambulatory EEG | Natus

im reading all these posts but...to be honest i dont think its seizures. my baby used to do this also when he was really young. and it was normal. i think its just cause they reached that point of REM. rapid eye movement. its a stage when we all sleep. my baby sometimes still does it now. twitch his arm or leg, smile, laugh. every once in a while i catch his eyes opening and rolling up after a. Electrical status epilepticus of sleep (ESES) describes seizure activity that becomes more frequent during sleep and is seen in more than half of a child's sleep EEG. ESES is found in school-age children, and it can affect different children in different ways and to varying degrees. Those who have ESES often, but not always, have seizures.

A person may laugh in their sleep due to odd dreams or sleep disorders. Rarely, the cause is a neurological condition. Sleep laughing can also be normal, especially in babies. Learn more about. Consider seizures that last longer than five minutes a medical emergency, and seek immediate help. Injury. The motions that occur during frontal lobe seizures sometimes result in injury to the person having the seizure. Seizures can also result in accidents and drowning. Sudden unexplained death in epilepsy (SUDEP)

Epilepsy Syndromes & Sleep * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * Differential Diagnosis of Nocturnal Events NREM Parasomnia REM Behavior Disorder Nocturnal Seizures Psychogenic Events Time of Occurrence First 1/3 of night During REM; latter 2/3 of night Any time (most common during first 2 hours and last 2 hours of sleep) Anytime Memory of Event Usually none Dream recall Usually no The REM Sleep Behavior Disorder. REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD) represents an important differential diagnosis to epilepsy in the elderly which occurs frequently. The muscle atony typically occurring during REM sleep is absent with RBD, resulting in the patients acting their dreams out. They hit and kick and report violent and scary dreams REM behavior disorder is a condition that causes people to act out physically during dreaming and REM sleep. Typically, during REM, the body is largely paralyzed, a state known as REM atonia. This immobilization keeps sleepers from reacting physically to their dreams. In REM behavior disorder, this paralysis doesn't occur, leaving people free. Abstract: The electro‐clinical features of neonatal seizures were described. Although they were usually secondary to the underlying pathological process, there were a few cases of benign familial convulsions which seemed to be dominantly inherited. In the newborn, clinical seizures occurred mainly in active‐REM sleep in contrast to those in the older children and adults. Atypical seizures. Neonatal smiling occurs from birth to one month of age and shows no emotional content. Smiles are spontaneous and often occur while the baby is drowsy or during REM stages of sleep. Baby smiles are subcortical in origin and will actually decrease with maturity (so premature babies smile more than full-term babies)

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