Lightning voltage measurement

To capture the energy, put your super-super capacitor right in the strike zone. From articles in Windpower Engineering & Development, we learn that lightning bolts carry from 5 kA to 200 kA and voltages vary from 40 kV to 120 kV. So if we take some averages, say, 100 kA and 100 kV, this bolt would carry this much power, P Answered 6 years ago · Author has 58 answers and 196.8K answer views The dielectric breakdown voltage describes the minimum voltage per unit length required for a material to ionise and allow charge to flow. Lightning occurs when the voltage per length in air equals to or exceeds this voltage, which is about 3 million volts per meter for air

How Many Volts Are In a Lightning Strike? Let's Do The Mat

Lightning is a naturally occurring electrostatic discharge during which two electrically charged regions in the atmosphere or ground temporarily equalize themselves, causing the instantaneous release of as much as one gigajoule (one billion volts, short scale) of energy. This discharge may produce a wide range of electromagnetic radiation, from very hot plasma created by the rapid movement of. MEASURING LIGHTNING - 2015 - PAGE 2 The vertical updraft within the cloud can reach a speed of 100 km/h, with similar values for the downdraft. Depending on their relative weight, the elements caught in this huge washing for the operators of high voltage grids. They have been mostly used in the electrical sector, bu Benjamin Franklin's experiment during a thunderstorm helped to reveal that lightning is electricity and that the charges can be conducted to the ground without causing much damage using a lightning rod. It seems from these values that the most definitive answer is from 10 to 120 million volts. Mathieu Lo -- 199

high voltage measurements. Transient voltages may be recorded through potential dividers and oscilloscopes. Lightning surges may be recorded using the Klydonograph. 6.1 Direct Measurement of High Voltages 6.1.1 Electrostatic Voltmeters One of the direct methods of measuring high voltages is by means of electro-static voltmeters. For voltages A volt is a measurement of the amount of energy released as each pack of electrons flows from one side of an object to another - for instance, a battery. When lightning strikes, we can determine the voltage it induces on nearby powerlines; measurements range from hundreds of thousands to millions of volts For comparison, most lightning bolts have 100 million volts of electric potential between their ends. Subway tracks carry less than 1, 000 volts. That voltage measurement i s 10 times higher than.. case of a lightning strike they became magnetized. The peak value of the lightning current and the polarity could then be derived from the residual magnetism retained by the steel wires. Because the magnetic links were relatively cheep, ten thousands of them were installed at high-voltage power lines in Germany [2, 3] A single lightning bolt is extremely powerful; measured in thousands and hundred thousands of amperes (kiloamps or kA)

The experimental final results have been taken by using spark gap measurements and voltage divider technique. This high voltage lightning impulse generator produces standard T1/T2 waveshape impulses While atmospheric physicists can approximate lightning bolt energy by measuring the electrical current and temperature of bolts as they occur, the numbers are usually approximations Lightning is a proprietary computer bus and power connector created and designed by Apple Inc. Introduced on September 12, 2012 (), to replace its predecessor, the 30-pin dock connector, the Lightning connector is used to connect Apple mobile devices like iPhones, iPads, and iPods to host computers, external monitors, cameras, USB battery chargers, and other peripherals Problem: Arc from transients (lightning, load switching) Protection: Independent certification to meet CAT III-1000 V or CAT IV 600 V; Problem: Voltage contact while in continuity or resistance Protection: Overload protection in OHMs up to the meter's volt rating; Problem: Measuring voltage with test leads in current jacks (short circuit!

Section 10.2 is dedicated to lightning current measurements, including measurements on transmission lines and high-instrumented towers. Section 10.3 presents the lightning voltage measurements. A detailed history of the lightning voltage measurement is presented. The principles for six types of lightning voltage measurement sensor are also. Voltage transformers in a power system are designed to transform voltages from high voltage on a transmission level to low voltage necessary for relays and measurement equipment. During their operation, the voltage transformer's windings are subjected to high frequency transient overvoltages due to switching operations and lightning strikes This CD is rated to measure high lightning and switching impulses up to 1000 kV peak and 750 kV peak, respectively, and alternating voltages (50 Hz) up to 250 kV rms. Connecting lead inductances between the ICG and the voltage measuring devices, i.e. the D-dot probe, the mixed RC probe and the CD are L1, L2 and L3, respectively

The rate of voltage rise of such a travelling wave is at its origin directly proportional to the steepness of the lightning current, which may exceed 100 kA/μsec, and the voltage levels may simply be calculated by the current multiplied by the effective surge impedance of the line measurement instrumentation. An analogy can be made between direct coupling of lightning transients and flooding that occurs because of overfilled storm drains. Just as ground circuits become saturated with electrons in the case of a lightning strike, storm drains become saturated with fast flowing water in torrential downpours This voltage is more than enough to damage most electronics. Differential mode voltage: In addition to the common mode voltage that was induced by the lightning strike, a differential mode voltage is induced. This is the difference in voltage between the two individual wires. It is detected by measuring the voltage between the two separate. and arcing faults. Measurements and calculations of lightning effects have been made to yield data on what levels can be produced, even if the exact mechanism of any particular surge is unknown. The major mechanisms by which lightning produces surge voltages are the following: (a) A direct lightning strike to a primary circui system; 3) an efficient, cheap, and nondestru ctive low-voltage measurement system based on a self-developed lightning-impulse generator; and 4) verification of the simulation results by.

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How are lightning voltages measured? - Quor

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Surge-measuring instruments suitable for lightning surges must record within microseconds (millionths of a second) and must be of such nature that auto- matic registration is obtained surge, lightning surge and even high current TOV events, the voltage appearing across the arrester can be considered a discharge voltage. considerations when measuring this voltage 3. Switching Protective Level (SPL) is the discharge voltage resulting from a discharge current cresting in 45-60µs. The IEC term for this i According to the National Severe Storm Laboratory, a single lightning bolt can have 100 million to 1 billion volts, and it contains billions of watts, depending on whether it is positive lightning or negative lightning. Lightning strikes ground in the United States approximately 25 million times each year

Ideally then you would measure a voltage across the shunt that is simply R times I (R is the resistance of the shunt and I is the lightning current). Very low resitance values (on the order of a milliohm) are needed because peak lightning current amplitudes are large Just count the number of seconds from the time you see a flash until you hear lightning. Sound travels approximately one fifth of a mile per second or one third of a kilometer per second, so dividing the number of seconds by 5 gives the number of miles to the flash and dividing by 3 gives the number of kilometers. Where does lightning strike full lightning impulses. Results of model fitting to four different groups of impulses are presented and compared with some other methods. Plans for the extension of this work are outlined. Keywords: Model-based parameter evaluation, curve-fitting, digital signal processing, high voltage impulse testing, impulse measurements. INTRODUCTIO As the last step, the measurement results will be compared with the breakdown characteristic of the standard lightning impulse voltage: The higher the frequency of the oscillation, the voltage-time curves comes nearer to the standard impulse voltage, which is caused by a higher damping at higher frequencies (MOVs) which feature rapid operation, accurate voltage control and automatic resetting once the overvoltage has ceased. 2 LIGHTNING 2.1 Introduction This section describes the mechanism by which lightning is generated and the ways by which high voltages produced by lightning discharges find their way into instrumentation and communications systems

Lightning - Wikipedi

The lightning card measures the lightning current in the conductor by registering the size of the magnetic field caused by the current. The measurement is a purely magnetic registration and the process is irreversible, which means that the registration saved can only be overwritten by a lightning strike with more current Explore Lightning Testing at NTS NTS uses generators capable of producing over 250,000 amperes and 2.4 million volts. Click on the interactive experience below to see the scope of NTS's lightning testing and simulation services. Built for the Modern Worl

  1. e all other voltage-current characteristics of an arrester. The Arrester VI Curve A varistor is a variable resistor with its resistance controlled by the voltage stress impressed across the device. The varistor and arrester Voltage-Curren
  2. The measurement reference point is the voltage level at which the measurement is referenced to. Reference Point Methods. There are essentially two methods to measure voltages: ground referenced and differential. Ground Referenced Voltage Measurement. One method is to measure voltage with respect to a common, or a ground point
  3. lightning strikes (lightning current) creates electromagnetic fields, which cause high voltages when they are coupled through openings into the wiring and equipment. This can have serious consequences such as power supply voltage measurement DC: direct current supply structure Page
  4. Thevenin voltage source ej is equivalent to the open-circuit voltage eQC, developed by the mutual inductance and resistive voltage rise across resistance Rw. Since the open-circuit volt-age is a function of the lightning current i^iEq. 5), then the Thevenin voltage is also a function of the lightning current or eT = + M(diL/dt) (6
  5. This paper presents the method for calculation of lightning critical flashover voltage (CFO) of high voltage insulators. Flashover occurrence on overhead transmission line insulators for 110 kV, 220 kV and 400 kV networks was studied using the leader progression model (LPM). Calculation results were compared to laboratory measurements and it was verified that presented method predicts CFO with.

Voltage measuring circuit. The impulse shape and the peak value of the impulse voltage are measured by means of an oscilloscope and a peak voltmeter which are connected to the voltage divider (Figure 3). The measuring range can be changed by shortcircuiting part of the high voltage capacitors or changing the low voltage capacitor of the divider Figure:1.3 Developmental Lighting over voltage EFFECT OF LIGHTNING The impedance of the lightning channel itself is much larger than 1/2Zo (it is believed to range from l00to 3000 Ω). Lightning voltage surge will have the same shape characteristics. In practice the shapes and magnitudes of lightning surge waves get modified by thei 60060-3 IEC:2006(E) - 7 - HIGH-VOLTAGE TEST TECHNIQUES - Part 3: Definitions and requirements for on-site testing 1 Scope This part of IEC 60060 is applicable to the following on-site test voltages and in servic Measure Lightning-induced Voltage Dips in a Low-Voltage Circuit. Measure Voltage Drop Caused by Wiring Impedance. Measure Transient Voltage Waveforms. Measure Periodical Instantaneous Voltage Drops. Inspect the Stress on Factory UPS Caused by Voltage Dips. Verify Fault Ride-Through (FRT) Capabilities in Equipment and PV Systems. TDD Measurement.

Measure Lightning-induced Voltage Dips in a Low-Voltage Circuit There is no way to avoid a voltage dip caused by lightning hitting a high-voltage system. This also causes a voltage dip in the low-voltage circuit so utility users need to take measures Voltage measurements are relative measurements. That is, a voltage measurement must be compared to another point in the circuit. If it is not, the measurement is meaningless. The ground reference point is often, but not always—more on this later—represented by a standard ground symbol Impulse voltage measurement For our electricity networks to be reliable, high-voltage power equipment must be able to withstand lightning strikes. This means all products used in high-voltage electricity networks must be tested with artificially generated lightning voltage. NMI has three roles in impulse high-voltage testing in Australia

Voltage of a Lightning Bolt - The Physics Factboo

  1. The actual definition is more precise, but for lightning impulses, T1 is 1.2 μs and T2 is 50 μs. The standard lightning impulse is described as a 1.2/ 50 μs wave. The standard switching impulse is a 250/ 2500 μs wave. Figure 7 - Standard impulse wav
  2. Lightning forks and rejoins itself over Table Mountain and Lion's Head in Cape Town, South Africa. Central Africa is the area of the world where lightning strikes most frequently
  3. A digital or storage oscilloscope with 100MHz bandwidth is sufficient for measuring the surge voltage and current waveforms and peaks. Test Execution According to IEC 61000-4-5, testing must be carried out according to the manufacturer's test plan, which shall specify
  4. Measuring Voltage with a Digital Multimeter — Image: allaboutcircuits.com This makes a total of five positions, and you are required to select the type of current (A) or voltage (V) to be measured..
  5. lightning arrester and allows for storing of all the measurement data in the field. 5. PRINCIPLE OF LCM-III The non linear resistance of the ZnO blocks will introduce a 3rd harmonic resistive component in the leakage current when it is stressed by a sinusoidal voltage. This current component is the bes
  6. Surge Arrester Construction, Types, Classes and Properties. Per the National Electrical Code (NEC), a surge arrester is defined as: A protective device for limiting surge voltages by discharging or bypassing surge current, and it also prevents the flow of follow current while remaining capable of repeating these functions. The original lightning arrester was nothing more than a spark air gap.
  7. Lightning Critical Flashover Voltage of High Voltage Insulators: Laboratory Measurements and Calculations Dalibor Filipovi-Gri 1, Božidar Filipovi-Gri 2, Ivo Ugleši 2 Abstract - This paper presents the method for calculation of lightning critical flashover voltage (CFO) of high voltage insulators

There's Way More Energy in a Bolt of Lightning Than We Though

Indian Scientists Measure 1

This paper presents a fast and precise method for the calculation of internal voltage transients over the voltage instrument transformer windings. Lumped circuit parameters of the transformer winding are calculated using self-developed solvers based on the boundary element method and integral equations approach. A detailed equivalent circuit of the transformer winding is solved in time domain For biasing experiments a source measuring unit (SMU) is required to precisely source voltage or current and simultaneously measure voltage and/or current. The majority of SMUs are compatible with the Lightning system and our preferred supplier/model is Keithley 2450. The Keithley 2450 can conveniently be controlled via the new Impulse SW

Electric Current through a Lightning Bolt - The Physics

lightning strike. 2. Analyzed voltage transformer All presented below results base on measurements, which were made in high voltage testing laboratory. One type of HV voltage transformers were examined for different voltage levels, terminals configuration and units. All presented measurement results as an example are for the same one unit. lightning and negative lightning. 3.2 Partial Discharge Measurements Also the PD activity has been measured (PRPD-pattern). As the algorithm is intended to predict the breakdown voltage (which is hopefully well above the actual operation voltage) PD data have been measured at several voltages below the measured A Measurement & Control devices/Lightning protection equipment. Measurement and control devices have a wide range of applications, such as production plants, building management, heating systems, warning device, etc. Overvoltages caused by lightning or other causes not only cause damage to the control system, but also cause damage to expensive converters and sensors The test systems generate lightning impulse voltage (LI, 1.2/50 µs), chopping lightning impulse voltages (LIC, front time 1.2 µs, front, crest or tail chopped), and switching impulse voltage (SI, 250/2500 µs) in accordance with IEC 60060-1; as well as IEC 60076-3 for transformers, and IEC 62067, 60840 und 60502-1 for cables)

(PDF) Design and Fabrication of a High Voltage Lightning

Study provides a new method to measure the energy of a

  1. An Overview of Electromagnetic and Lightning Induced Voltage Transients Introduction This Note is an overview of the sources and nature of various transient overvoltages, and the problems that may result. Transients in electrical circuits result from the sudde
  2. A lightning peak of 65 kA or earth rod of 10 m the difference in voltage drops would be further exaggerated. This clearly illustrates the importance of inductance in the design of any lighting protection earth electrode. The use of resistance itself is not an accurate measure of performance. This is further complicated by soil ionizations
  3. Lightning Protection Lightning is a giant spark of electricity in the atmosphere or between the atmosphere and the ground. In the initial stages of development, air acts as an insulator between the positive and negative charges in the cloud and between the cloud and the ground; however, when the differences in charges becomes too great, this insulating capacity of the air breaks down and there.
  4. By this comparison, we can view the ionization process as burning a path through the air for the lightning to follow, much like digging a tunnel through a mountain for a train to follow. After the ionization process, the path between the cloud and the earth begins to form. Learn about step leaders, or paths of ionized air, next
  5. A Low-Voltage Outdoor Lighting System A volt/amp meter will assist in answering your troubleshooting questions. 1. Why does my transformer put out 11 volts instead of 12 volts? Outdoor lighting transformers step-down power at a ratio of 10 to 1. If you put 120 volts into a transformer, you will get 12 volts out

This blog has the answer—we'll take a look at two of the most common electrical measurements: voltage and amperage. Visualizing Electrical Flow. Call Lightning Bug Electric at (404) 471-3847 now to request an inspection appointment! 404-471-3847. Local Office. 629 Collins R The chopping wave of lightning impulse voltage is shown in figure 3. The lightning impulse chopping time Tc is the time interval between the origin and the truncation moment. The apparent characteristics of the voltage period during truncation are defined by breaking the 70% of the instantaneous voltage value and the C and D points of 10% Lighting is a common phenomenon in transmission lines because of their tall height. This lightning stroke on the line conductor causes impulse voltage. The terminal equipment of transmission line such as power transformer then experiences this lightning impulse voltages. Again during all kind of online switching operation in the system, there will be switching impulses occur in the network The typical Lightning Arrester has a high-voltage terminal and a ground terminal. When a lightning surge (or switching surge) travels along the power line to the Arrester, the current from the surge is diverted through the Arrestor, in most cases to the earth. Measurements on surge arresters are always performed at the same or recommended.

Each current carries, on average, around 100 million volts, and is capable of stretching 300 kilometers (about 180 miles) or more. On rare occasions bolts can reach more than twice that distance, with some 'superbolts' shining 1,000 times brighter than typical lightning strikes Depending on the cause, a surge voltage can last a few hundred microseconds, hours or even days. The amplitude can range from a few millivolts to some ten thousand volts. Lightning strikes are a special cause of surge voltages His research interests are measurements of power system insulation, lightning, and high voltage phenomena. He served as Chairman of the IEEJ Power and Energy Society from 2004 to 2006, Vice Chairman in 2007-08, and CIGRE SC C4 Advisory Group C4.4 (Lightning) Convener Spectrometry is known for the science and utilization of spectrometers for measurement and analysis. It is the study of interactions between light and matter, and the reactions and measurements of radiation intensity and wavelength. The diagram below shows how spectrometry is used to analyze a sample. The sample is shown in Step 2

Lightning (connector) - Wikipedi

What are Electrical Measurement Categories (CAT III, Cat IV)

HV/MV Equipment :: GE Grid SolutionsSeven design diagrams that every HV substation engineerGDCY-20B Impulse Voltage Generator-GDCY-20B Impulse

IET Digital Library: Measurement of lightning currents and

Transient voltage or voltage surge is defined as sudden sizing of voltage to a high peak in very short duration.The voltage surges are transient in nature, that means they exist for very short duration. The main cause of these voltage surges in power system are due to lightning impulses and switching impulses of the system Components and Systems for Voltage, Current and Power Measurement; 5.18/6 Reference Voltage Measuring Systems; 5.21/5 Controlled Resistive Lightning Impulse Reference Voltage Divider, Type SMR Ref; 5.23/3 High-Ohmic Resistive Reference Voltage Divider Type GMR ref; 5.24/7 Universal Resistive / Capacitive Reference Voltage Divider, Type MCR ref; 5.25/10 Damped Capacitive Reference. Use of Test Voltage Factor Method for Evaluation of Lightning Impulses with Oscillations • Previous versions of Standard 4 ignored the effects of oscillations near the peak if the frequency of the oscillation was higher than 500 kHz • Below 500 kHz, the measured peak voltage was taken as the peak value of the voltage

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Measurement vs. Simulation . Measurement System . Static vs. Time Harmonic 2D Simulation . The accuracy of the simulated values is very Important to . 2D electric and magnetic Field Simulation . The magnetic (left) and electric (right) field of the simulated . Simulation and Measurement of Lightning-impulse Voltage Distributions over. • Check the input voltage. Us the AC voltage setting of the voltmeter to measure across the line side of the circuit breaker (A‐A). • Check across the load side of the circuit breaker (B‐B). The measured voltage should be the same as measured on the line side Surge Arrester For Dallas Homeowners Not all surge arresters protect systems from lightning. While lightning current arresters (Class 1) are used to protect against direct lightning surge currents, surge arresters (Class 2) protect equipment from induced surges in electrical wiring. Surge arresters and lightning current arresters from DEHN offer reliable protection against these hazards There are different voltage levels which are applied to cable based on their rating and size. For doing a Megger test of a 33kV HT cable. The voltage level applied is of 5000V and the value of IR can be anywhere between 1GigaOhm to 200GigaOhm. When we are using a multimeter, we are measuring a resistance, voltage, and current

Lightning impulse voltage distribution over voltage

6. General Considerations on the Problems Related to Measurement 7. Earth Resistivity 7.1 General 7.2 Methods of Measuring Earth Resistivity 7.3 Interpretation of Measurements 7.4 Guidance on performing field measurements 8. Ground Impedance 9. Testing Local Potential Differences 10. Integrity of Grounding Systems 11. Current Splits 12 Lightning strikes on outdoor transmission lines also cause extremely hazardous high-energy transients. If you're taking measurements on electrical systems, these transients are invisible and largely unavoidable hazards. They occur regularly on low-voltage power circuits, and can reach peak values in the many thousands of volts Impulse voltages are measured with a voltage divider that reduces the voltage to a measurable level. For lightning impulses, a resistor divider is normally used The lightning impulse voltage test is executed as a type test to prove the constructive coordination of the transformer (e.g. insolation in the winding turn-to-turn, layer-to-layer, terminal-to-constructive parts, etc.). The impulse also reproduces the stress peaks and switching surges in the net. 3.3 The device which is used for the protection of the equipment at the substations against travelling waves, such type of device is called lightning arrester or surge diverter. When a travelling wave reaches the arrester, its sparks over at a certain prefixed voltage as shown in the figure below. The arrestor provides a conducting path to the waves of relatively low impedance between the line and.

Measurement and calculation of surge-arrester residual

The IEC-60060-1 High-voltage test technique was revised in 2010 and an evaluation method using the k-factor function (test voltage function) was introduced for the lightning impulse voltage test, which involved the overshoot waveform being converted into the test voltage waveform. Test standards for UHV-class equipment are also presently being studied The Lightning connector is an 8-pin standard, but each cable has 16 pins. This way there will always be 8 pins to link up with the contacts in the iPhone 5 whichever way you plug it in The lightning arrester protects the electrical equipment from lightning. It is placed very near to the equipment and when the lightning occurs the arrester diverts the high voltage wave of lightning to the ground. The selection of arrester depends on the various factors like voltage, current, reliability, etc Faulty contactors and lightning are the most common source of transients. It's important that measurement tools designed to survive voltage transients should be certified by at least one independent testing agency Lightning impulse X X Dielectric test Switching impulse X Dielectric test Applied voltage test X Dielectric test Induced voltage with or without partial discharge measurement X Dielectric test No load loss after dielectrics X CSA Low or Power frequency test on auxiliary / control devices and current transformers X Dielectric tes

Impulse Voltages - BrainKar

In the scope of this paper, voltage measurements refer to AC power systems at industrial and utility voltage levels that range from 120VRMS for regional residential service to over 750kV for extra high voltage (EHV) systems on a transmission system for an electrical grid Greenlee is excited to expand the test and measurement portfolio with the HDE High Voltage Line. HDE brings a rich history of innovation, reliability and customer focus and will allow Greenlee to offer a more complete product solution to power utility and electrical professionals XDS-GFS-12-001-R2 Earthing and Lightning Protection Uncontrolled when printed Page 2 of 37 XDS-GFS-12-001-R2 1 SCOPE 4 2 SPECIFICATIONS AND STANDARDS 4 2.1 STANDARDS 4 2.2 UNITS OF MEASUREMENT 5 2.3 INTERCHANGEABILITY AND STANDARDISATION 6 3 SERVICE CONDITIONS 6 4 NETWORK PARAMETERS 6 5 EARTH GRID 8 5.1 SOIL TESTS & SITE SELECTION 8 5.2 DESIGN (MODELLING) Lightning strikes on outdoor transmission lines also cause extremely hazardous high-energy transients. If you're taking measurements on elec-trical systems, these transients are invisible and largely unavoidable hazards. They occur regularly on low-voltage was used to measure medium voltage, such as 4160 V. Just as common, the knock-ou

Lightning surge and grounding practices METE

Medium & High Voltage / High Current / High Power Environmental conditions with high voltages, high currents or both require special precautions for humans as well as electronical devices. The fiber-optic-based measurement probes for SATURN Transient Recorders provide a field-tested reliable solution for measurement tasks in these areas Tests with high impulse currents are performed to simulate the stress of power apparatus in the high-voltage grid caused by lightning and short circuits. Various impulse test currents and the corresponding measurement methods are standardized in IEC 62475, together with DC and AC currents High Voltage Shield Cable(HVSC) Insulated Down Conductor 50mm2 For Lightning Protection Production Description: High Voltage Shielded Cable(HVSC) is a high integrity low impedance cable which is designed to convey lighting engergy to ground with minimal risk of side flashing or structure electrification Lightning & Surge Technologies R L = ρ× A here ρ Resistivity (Ω-m) of the conductor material etween the opposite faces of a cube of material with a side dimension of 1 metre. Consequently, is the measure of the resistance between the opposite sides of a cube of soil with a side dimension of 1 metre. Ω Ω Ω The Istra lightning machine, unparalleled in its discharge capacity, consists of a 3 Megawatt capacity transformer cascade; a 9 Megawatt Pulsed Voltage Generator (PVG), measuring 39.3 meters high, capable of creating 150-meter artificial lightning, believed to be largest in the world; and a 2.25 Megawatt constant voltage unit

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